History

History of the Institute The Institute of Seismology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan was organized after the well-known destructive Tashkent earthquake of 1966 on the basis of Government Decree No. 449 of August 31, 1966 and Order of the Academy of Sciences No. 19 of September 23, 1966.
Prior to the organization of the Institute, seismological studies in Uzbekistan were mainly concentrated at the Institute of Mathematics and the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. The organization of the first specialized Institute of Seismology in the world allowed to concentrate and expand the thematic and material-technical base of seismological research. In order to expand geophysical research, the Integrated Magnetic-Ionosphere Observatory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan was included in the Institute. With the organization of the Institute, seismological studies acquired an integrated and targeted character aimed at studying the nature of seismicity and earthquake preparation processes, as well as solving practical problems of seismic hazard assessment and zoning as a normative basis for seismic resistant construction.
The priority areas of research activities of the Institute were identified: the development of methods for the integrated assessment and zoning of seismic hazard, the creation of an earthquake prediction methodology. The developed program for the development of seismology in Uzbekistan included a complex of geological and tectonic, geophysical, hydrogeological, geodesic, geodynamic studies, mathematical and physical modeling of the processes of destruction of mountain parodies, the search for informative precursors of earthquakes in variations of natural fields. In the course of its implementation, a number of fundamental results were obtained that determined the fundamental basis for the further development of seismological studies. The first major scientific synthesis of complex research was a monograph devoted to the study of the nature and consequences of the Tashkent earthquake of 1966. Its eight chapters cover all the main areas of research in the field of seismology. Similar scientific reports in the form of monographs were made for Gazliis of 1976, Tavaksai of 197.7, Nazarbek of 1980 and other earthquakes. Along with Uzbek researchers, a number of leading scientists from relevant institutes of the former USSR actively participated in these studies.
Employees of the Institute have made a significant contribution to the creation of a map of OSR-1978, prepared under the editorship of Academician M.A. Sadowski. The methodology and maps of seismic microzoning of territories of a number of cities, a map of seismogenic zones have been developed. A new direction has been developed - seismic geodynamics. A group of scientists of the Institute was awarded the Beruni State Prize for the research cycle and the seismic microzoning of 24 cities of Uzbekistan.
A significant contribution to the development of the fundamental base of earthquake prediction problems was the scientific discoveries by Uzbek seismologists of previously unknown natural phenomena caused by earthquake preparation processes: "The phenomenon of changes in the chemical composition of groundwater during an earthquake" (discovery No. 129, registered by the USSR State Committee on Discoveries and Inventions on June 12, 1973 with priority of February 21, 1966), “Electromagnetic emissions at the final stage of earthquake preparation”, “Modification of electron layers Thera over the fire coming earthquake. " They have received deserved recognition from geophysicists in many countries around the world.
In order to implement the results of the Institute’s research, seismic and geodynamic polygons were organized, a network of stations of complex regime observations was created, and a number of successful estimated earthquake forecasts were made. In the last decade, scientists of the Institute have developed a new methodology for seismic hazard assessment and built on its basis a set of maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, in which the seismic hazard is expressed in terms of the macro-seismic scale, speeds and accelerations of soil oscillations and their spectral characteristics. The seismic hazard assessment is based on various models of seismic sources and the response of the environment to seismic effects; based on the established regularities of the seismic process development in the centers of strong earthquakes and seismically active zones, for the territory of Uzbekistan, a map of the areas of expected seismic activation for the coming years has been developed for the first time for the territory of Uzbekistan; for the first time in the world, a geophysical model of earthquake preparation processes has been created; revealed a previously unknown phenomenon of nature - “Intensification of tidal deformations in the area of ​​an impending earthquake”; a method of medium-term earthquake prediction was developed based on the statistical classification of the complex of informative characteristics of seismic fields.
As part of the State Program for Forecasting and Prevention of Emergency Situations, 18 research projects have been implemented. As part of the State Program for the Reconstruction and Development of a Seismic Hazard Monitoring System, an automated network of 60 seismological stations has been created based on modern digital hardware-information and telecommunication technologies. Her data center is equipped with hardware and software for seismic data collection, automatic and interactive processing and storage. Currently, it is possible to register earthquakes of magnitudes M = 1.5-2.0 throughout the territory of Uzbekistan. The seismic monitoring network software provides the ability to quickly determine the parameters of perceptible earthquakes within a few minutes, and, thereby, significantly increases the efficiency of rescue formations. In accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. 5066 of June 01, 2017, the network of seismological monitoring was transferred to the EMERCOM of Uzbekistan.
In order to automate the monitoring of earthquake precursors, a hardware-software complex of the cluster center for registration, preliminary processing, storage and transmission of geophysical and hydro-physical data to the earthquake precursors monitoring center has been developed. The unique digital sensors of geoelectric, electromagnetic fields, hydrophysical parameters of groundwater, a digital radon measurement device, an electromagnetic radiation arrival angle finder and a calibration stand for measuring sensors have been developed. Developed software packages for database management and processing of multidimensional series, characterizing the indicators of earthquakes.
Research is being developed on the compilation of an inventory of seismic hazardous zones, seismic microzonation of territories of settlements and important economic facilities. According to the state task, a methodology is developed for monitoring changes in the stress-strain state of the earth's crust for phased implementation into practice. The concept of the development of seismology in Uzbekistan until 2025 provides for the solution of promising fundamental and applied problems aimed at deepening knowledge about the nature and interdependence of seismicity at various scale levels, as well as about the patterns and mechanisms of seismogenic processes.