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Mavlyanov Gani Arifkhanovich
(15.I.1910 - 12.III.1988)
Mavlyanov GA born in Tashkent in the family of a peasant. In 1930, after graduating from working courses at the Central Asian State University, he entered the mining department of the Central Asian Industrial Institute, and graduated from it in 1935. He was sent to work as a hydrogeological engineer at the Sredazgiprovodkhlopok Institute. Soon, he is sent to the graduate school of the Moscow Geological Prospecting Institute (MGRI). Since that time, GA. Mavlyanova begins scientific activities under the guidance of the largest scientists V.A. Obrucheva, F.P. Savarensky and V.A. Priklonsky. In 1940 defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences on the topic: "Sinking phenomena in the loess and loess-like rocks of some regions of Uzbekistan". This was one of his first major works, revealing the peculiarities of the influence of the genesis of loess rocks on the chemical and mineral composition and physicomechanical properties of these sediments, and primarily on their subsidence. It recommends measures to combat subsidence due to irrigation construction and irrigation of loess areas for agricultural development. In 1940-1941. He works as a senior lecturer, associate professor and then dean of the mining department of the Central Asian Industrial Institute. volunteer goes to the front and takes an active part in the hostilities of the Great Patriotic War, was wounded twice and was seriously wounded. His military feat was honored by military orders and medals From 1946 to 1956.- the postwar years continued scientific work at the Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, in positions ranging from senior researcher to director. Central and Southern parts of Central Asia and their geotechnical properties. ” On the basis of a critical analysis of the collected large amount of factual material from perennial field, laboratory and experimental studies, he proves the possibility of the formation of loess in various ways. He develops a genetic classification of loess rocks of central and southern Central Asia, in which it is shown that genesis is of decisive importance in the formation of the geotechnical properties of rocks and the characteristics of their subsidence.
Genetic types of loess rocks identified by him, characteristics of their distribution, composition and properties were taken as the basis for all geological, engineering geological and hydrogeological maps compiled to date, and sections of loess areas of Central Asia. Anticipating a number of problems that may arise during the development of virgin lands , expanding the volume of urban planning, in hydraulic engineering, initiated the creation of the Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology (HYDROINGEO). As its director, he headed major regional hydrogeological and engineering-geological studies throughout Uzbekistan that are necessary for the implementation of the state program for the socio-economic development of the republic. Under the leadership and with his participation, the compilation of complex small-scale hydrogeological and engineering-geological maps of Uzbekistan has begun. The most significant among them were the maps of hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions, maps of hydrogeological and engineering-geological zoning, maps of the forecast of subsidence of the territory of distribution of loess rocks. In 1968, edited by G.A. Mavlyanova published the first “Survey engineering-geological map of the Uzbek SSR” on a scale of 1: 1,000,000, based on the formation principle. It distinguishes: 9 types of formations of the bedrock base rocks (intrusive, effusive, metamorphic, lower errigenic, effusive-sedimentary, carbonate, terrigenous-carbonate, upper errigenous, molasse), three types of surface sediment formations (desert, foothill plains, intermountain depressions) and corresponding the geological engineering groups and rock complexes for them. In the following years, a number of regional and detailed geotechnical studies were conducted under the guidance and with his participation, mainly in loess areas x on the problem of mapping and zoning, engineering geodynamics, the development of dangerous geological processes and phenomena. Detailed studies were carried out to identify the features and patterns of distribution and development of subsidence and landslides in loess rocks, flooding of territories with groundwater, etc. A set of new engineering-geological maps based on modern improved methods were compiled based on the results of these works. The main ones are: maps of geotechnical conditions, forecast of subsidence of areas of distribution of loess rocks, development of exogenous geological phenomena in the territory of Uzbekistan and its individual regions. The new stage of its scientific and scientific-organizational activity is connected with the organization on October 1, 1966. in the system of the Academy of Sciences of a new research institution - the Institute of Seismology, the director of which he was approved. Already in the early stages of its activities, he laid the foundation for seismological research based on a geological basis, and from this position the main directions and structure of the institute were determined. These are general seismic zoning, seismic micro zoning, engineering seismological and engineering geological mapping, development of a network of seismic stations, study of seismic regime, macroseismic, seismotectonics, search for seismic event precursors, study of variations of geophysical fields, development of hydrogeoseismological, mathematical methods of research. In accordance with these directions, the structure of the Institute was determined. Thus, complex studies were organized at the Institute of Seismology in order to study the nature and effect of earthquakes, assess and predict the seismic hazard of the territories. One of his merits is the development of a new direction in engineering geology and engineering seismology - engineering seismology. On his initiative, a number of theoretical and methodological issues of studying and evaluating the influence of engineering and geological factors on changes in seismic intensity were developed. Under his leadership and with the participation, maps of general seismic zoning of Uzbekistan and seismic zoning of a number of cities and sites of large hydraulic structures, which served as normative documents of seismic resistant construction, were compiled. He was one of the main authors of scientific discovery No. 129 - “Changes in the chemical and gas composition (elements and isotopes) of groundwater in the periods preceding and accompanying earthquakes.” Despite the heavy workload of scientific and organizational work, he always found time to work with young professionals. Being a professor, since 1956. He taught at the Faculty of Geological Survey TashPI. Under his leadership, defended 6 doctoral and 70 master's theses.
He was awarded the Order of the "Red Star", "World War I and II degree", twice the Order of the "Red Banner of Labor", "Badge of Honor" and medals. In 1970 He was awarded the title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology of Uzbekistan. For great services in 1981. He was awarded the Beruni State Prize. A talented scientist and science organizer G.А. Mavlyanov, who made a huge contribution to the formation and development of engineering-geological and seismological sciences in Uzbekistan, is one of the major scientists of our time. The author of more than 350 scientific works, including 20 monographs.