Earthquake - one of the most terrible and destructive natural phenomena. Similar cataclysms take place in so-called seismoactive zones of Earth. One of such areas is also the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan where there can be earthquakes measuring up to 9 points.
Force (intensity) of earthquakes is estimated in points on a 12-mark scale of MSK-64. Depending on manifestation on the Earth's surface, earthquakes can be described as follows:
1-3 points - weak
4-5 points - notable
6-7 points - strong
8-10 points - destructive
11-12 points - catastrophic
During emergence of an earthquake of people feel unpleasant feelings, sometimes a panic which results in behavior, unreasonable and unsafe for life of many people.
It is very important that the people living or temporarily being in seismoactive zones were able to apply simple precautionary measures and knew what needs to be done in case of an earthquake.
Remember that those people who know well how to behave to, in time and after an earthquake overcome the fear much easier.
the population in case of earthquake threat
In advance define the safest way of an exit from the room in case of an earthquake. Remember that it can occur at night, and doors and corridors will be hammered by people, and it can prevent a fast exit from the room. Evacuation can go also through windows of the first floor.
In advance choose the safest places in the house, the apartment - internal corners at main walls, apertures of inside doors, tables, beds, machines.
Consider, the most dangerous places in buildings during an earthquake are the big glazed apertures of external and internal walls, angular rooms, especially top floors, elevators and landings.
Teach children and other family members to take the safe place.
Study and teach all adult family members to disconnect electricity, gas and water supply in the apartment, an entrance, the house.
Consider how to ensure safety of children, old men and disabled people.
Strongly attach to walls cases, whatnots, racks, regiments to walls. Place furniture so that it could not fall to berths and block exits from rooms, block doors.
Strongly fix or move the heavy things lying on shelves, on furniture in cases down. Track that your bed was located far away from large windows, mirrors and heavy objects which can fall.
Do not arrange the shelf over berths, entrance doors, sinks, toilet bowls.
Do not encumber with things an entrance to the apartment, corridors and landings.
The capacities containing flammable and caustic liquids have to be corked and be stored so that they could not fall and break at fluctuations of the building.
Study skills of first aid, first of all at injuries. Have in the house a first-aid kit with a reserve of necessary medicines in such cases.
Keep in mind a possibility of use as a shelter of your garage or a country house, the cellar in the yard as shelters where it will be possible to wait elements and where it is necessary to store a stock of food and a thing. At the same time you remember that less reliable are the constructions located near steep and landslide slopes.
Check a condition of your house, define what measures for its strengthening are required.
In rural settlements estimate whether there is no your housing or the place of work in a zone of flooding or near steep, landslide slopes and also in zones of formation of mud streams. If so, plan an evacuation order together with members of your family, neighbors. Remember that strong earthquakes can cause such dangerous phenomena as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, cracks in soil, sag of a surface, fluidifying of the soil.
During a strong earthquake
When there is an earthquake, the soil will fluctuate noticeably rather short time — several seconds at close earthquakes and 2-3 minutes at very strong and remote earthquakes. These fluctuations are unpleasant, can cause a fright. But you have no other choice except how to wait for them the termination. Do not give in to panic. If you act quietly and consciously, you have more chances to remain safe. Moreover, other people will follow an example of you and will only benefit from it.
If you felt concussion of the soil or building, react immediately, remembering that the greatest danger proceeds from the falling objects.
If you are on the first floor of the multystoried building, in the personal house - from adobe, burned, pise-walled, a brick, and can quickly leave the room during the first 15-20 sec., then make it. Having run out from the room, depart from it on the open place, far away from the power line, gas pipes, from high buildings, bridges.
If you remained indoors, immediately take in advance chosen safe place. If there is a danger of falling of pieces of plaster, lamps, glasses, then hide under a table or a bed. School students can take cover under school desks, to turn away from windows and to hide the face and the head in hands.
If you are in the room above the first floor of the multi-storey building, do not rush to the elevator and ladders because they often collapse during an earthquake. In such cases open the door and get up in an aperture. Be not frightened if the door jams - it happens because of a building distortion.
In any building you keep further from windows, is closer to internal, main walls of the building. Be careful of glass partitions
Do not jump in a window, being above the first floor. You remember, it can lead to a trauma even at full safety of the building.
Do not jump in the glazed windows. At obvious need beat out glass a stool, as a last resort - a back.
Force themselves to keep tranquility, do not do anything that can disorganize people around, do not create a crush in the doorway and passes.
In rural areas the earthquake can provoke mud streams, landslides, collapses, rockfalls. Therefore try to take the most sublime place, far away from zones of flooding, steep and steep slopes.
It is impossible to be near the farmyard - you can be crushed by the scared animals.
On the outdoor
Being on the sidewalk near the high building, depart on the open place to avoid the falling fragments, and far away from a power line. Be careful of the torn-off wires.
Do not run along the building, you do not enter buildings: real hazard to life is posed by the falling fragments.
Being in the moving car, smoothly stop far away from high buildings, power lines, bridges, petrol filling stations, steep slopes, gorges, a flood plain and beds of the rivers.
After an earthquake
When concussions of the soil stop, you, perhaps, will find significant destructions and victims. At the same time it is especially important, keeping calm, to immediately begin to help victims and wounded.
Provide first aid we nuzhdakyushchitsya. Cover wounded with blankets not to allow overcooling. Direct to them the doctor.
Ensure safety of children, patients, old men. Try to support and encourage those who are psychologically injured by the events.
Release got to easily removable blockages. Be careful. If it is required additional - medical or other care, then wait for it.
If found seats of fire, then try to take measures for their suppression.
Check whether there are no damages of an electrical wiring. Eliminate malfunction or disconnect electricity.
Check whether there are no damages of water supply systems. If it is possible, eliminate malfunction or turn off water supply.
Block gas gates if there is a danger of leak. At the same time determine leak of gas by a smell, never use for this purpose matches or a candle.
Before using the sewerage, be convinced of its serviceability within the building, the cellar.
Liquidate the spilled dangerous liquids (gasoline, chemicals, etc.) and warn about them others.
You do not approach obviously damaged buildings, you do not enter them. You do not come into areas of destructions if only there your help is not required.
At survey of cellars, closets, carefully open a door that heavy objects, beams, plaster did not fall to you.
Do not occupy phone without extreme needs, except as for a call of the help, messages about serious incidents, wounds or crimes. You remember, the overload of phone lines reduces overall performance of emergency services.
Do not invent and do not retail any guesses and gossip about possible following pushes. Use official data.
If you appeared in a blockage, then quietly estimate a situation. Give yourself first aid if it is necessary, stop bleeding, apply a bandage.
Help those who near you, help them to calm down. Try to establish connection with the people who are out of a blockage (voice, knock). Save forces. You remember, the help will come, the main thing to wait it.
Remember that the danger of repeated pushes - aftershocks remains. Aftershocks can arise in a few minutes, hours or even days after the main pushes.
Heads and workers who are responsible for safety of people!
Together with local authorities develop the measures of seismic safety considering features of housing, buildings of your organization, the enterprise, establishment, school, kindergartens and day nursery, hospitals.
Designers and builders! Remember that your possible mistakes, inaccurate work, violations of technology can reduce durability of buildings and constructions and to create danger to those who will live and work in these buildings.
Heads of objects! You watch technical condition of buildings and constructions. Indifferently the best object can come to critical condition ahead of time.
Abdullabekov K.N., Zufarov V.G. An instruction to the population about actions at earthquakes//UNICEF (Unite for children) Tashkent, 2009, 26 p.