Unique object

The Seismological Information and Analytical Center was created to create a high-tech system for collecting, monitoring, processing, expert analysis, storing seismological monitoring information and a republican data center based on modern hardware and information technologies. It is the connecting intellectual unit of the seismological monitoring system with access to emergency management structures and other users of analytical information on the problem of seismic hazard assessment in Uzbekistan.
The main goal of the organization of the Information and Analytical Center for Seismological Monitoring is the creation of a high-tech system for collecting, monitoring, processing, expert analysis, storing information of seismic, seismic forecasting and geophysical monitoring, as well as creating a center for international data exchange based on modern hardware and information technologies. IACTSM is an analytical link linking the seismological monitoring system with state and public management structures - consumers of analytical information on the operational assessment of seismic hazard.
The urgency of creating IACSM is due to the need to solve a complex of tasks arising from modern requirements for the problems of protecting the population and territories from natural and man-made disasters.


Unique scientific object "Integrated magnetic ionospheric observatory with an archive of magnetograms"
It is intended for observing the variations of parameters: a component of the magnetic, telluric, atmospheric electric and electromagnetic fields, the ionosphere, the flux of cosmic rays, the slopes of the earth's surface, seismic vibrations. It is a stronghold of the network of stations monitoring geophysical precursors and is part of the international network of planetary geophysical stations. Observation materials are also in demand for exploration, cartographic, and geodetic surveys.
Opened in 1878 at the typographic department of the Turkestan Military District. In the same year, the Temporary Regulations on the Tashkent Physical and Astronomical Observatories was adopted, which predetermined the geophysical orientation of the physical observatory in the magnetometeorological.
In 1881 In the Physical Observatory, the first Secchi system was installed. Thanks to the efforts of a graduate of St. Petersburg University G.V. By 1892, Popov’s seismic observations had significantly expanded and the number of seismoscopes installed in the cities of Tashkent, Andijan, Kokand and Jizzakh reached 12. In 1911, seismic observations acquired the status of a separate service.
For half a century, the staff of the Tashkent Physical Observatory performed an impressive amount of topographic and magnetometric work on certain routes in the vast territory of the Central Asian region. Geomagnetic studies were carried out by magnetic theodolites of the Neymair, Bamberg, Maskar-Muro-Chassellon, Meierstein, Schmidt, Krause systems, Wild – Edelman, Gambe, induction or switch-on inclinometers, azimuth compass of Brouwer, etc. They ensured an acceptable signal and a suitable heart rate. In these measurements, the declination -D was mainly determined, the declination — I, and the horizontal component — the geomagnetic field H.
The Tashkent Physical Observatory played an important role in the study of the region, the training of local personnel, the formation and further successes of the natural sciences in Central Asia. For the first time for the region, instrumental records of strong earthquakes were obtained, which are the firstborn of the gold fund of geophysics. The results obtained laid the foundation for the development of further in-depth large-scale research.
The creation of the Turkestan Meteorological Institute on the basis of the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the Republic of Turkestan from 1921 was a powerful incentive for the further development of geophysics. The Physical Part of the Tashkent Physical Observatory, which was renamed the "Tashkent Magnetometeorological Observatory", was included in the structure of the Institute. At its base in 1924. By order of the Main Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service at the USSR Council of Ministers, a Tashkent Geophysical Observatory (TNIGO) was established. V.N. was appointed as the first head of TNIGO. Mikhalkov, who headed the observatory until 1950. By this time, it had a number of magnetometric and electrometric instruments. In the same year, magnetic pavilions were built and regular stationary magnetovariational observations began, which continue to the present. The observatory included the creation of a geophysical instrumentation workshop, a group of mathematical processing (hereinafter the Department and the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences), and a department of geophysics was organized at the SAUU. By 1940, the observatory had a staff of 102 units, first-class equipment of 1300 items at that time, and highly qualified specialists. In connection with the appearance of a tram in Tashkent and an increase in the level of industrial interference in 1936, the observatory was moved to Keles in the north of Tashkent.

Since the beginning of its activities, the geophysical observatory has been actively involved in solving major fundamental geophysical problems and national economic problems. Already in 1924, during the geophysical expedition along the Fergana Valley, in the Jalalabad region, high amplitude anomalous changes in the gradient of the atmospheric electric field half a day before the Kurshab earthquakes, which occurred before the Chatkal 1946, Haitsky 1949, Tashkent 1966 and other earthquakes. These results became the basis for the creation of an atmospheric-electrical method for searching for precursors of earthquakes.
In the years 1930-1940. The morphological and dynamic parameters of the atmospheric electric field and atmospheric visibility, as well as their physical connections with various heliogeophysical sources (EA Chernyavsky), were studied in detail.
In 1937-1940 on a large array of meteorological and heliophysical data, the provisions of long-term weather predictions taking into account solar activity were developed.
1940-1955 years in the creative plan were the most productive. At this stage, annual scientific collections of works of the Tashkent Geophysical Observatory (edited by VN Mikhalkov) were issued. The regular variations of the geomagnetic field are studied in detail. The method of formalized evaluation has been developed and the characteristic features of disturbances of the earth’s magnetic field and the atmospheric electric field have been studied. A catalog of magnetic storms and K-indices of perturbation of the GMF (VN Mikhalkov, EA Chernyavsky and others) has been compiled.
The team of the observatory derived the relationships of the quantitative relation of the variations of the atmospheric electric field and the GMF from a number of helio-geophysical and tidal factors. Based on the harmonic analysis, the main parameters of the space-time structure of the secular changes of the magnetic field in Keles and at the points of the secular course of Central Asia for the years 1870-1945 are revealed. The quantitative ratios of air dust content on the electric field gradient are derived. Produced mapping of magnetic and gravitational regional anomalies of Central Asia. On the basis of long-term observational data on the network of the stations Tashkent, Ashgabat, Alma-Ata, Fedchenko Glacier, the spatial-temporal structure of the gradient of the atmospheric electric field under various conditions has been studied in detail.
Over the three decade period, the employees of TNGOGO have done a great job of truly practical and scientific value. In the harsh conditions of 1930-1940. For the first time in world practice, a detailed survey of the magnetic and gravitational fields was made with the preparation of their structural map for such a large region. The space-time structure of variations in the constant and variable components of the geomagnetic field is determined. A pleiad of highly qualified geophysicists, including 2 doctors and five candidates of science, has been prepared. In the applied plan for many years ahead, promising areas for the mining industry of the Republic are predetermined. Far-sighted scientists and large organizers of science have shown themselves to be the head of the observatory VN. Mikhalkov and Professor E.A. Chernyavsky.
Without a doubt, carrying out these large-scale R & D is difficult to imagine without the full support provided by the Government of Uzbekistan to scientists. For example, in 1928 a steamship was allocated for expeditionary work in the waters of the Aral Sea and the mouth of the Amu Darya River. In 1934, two vehicles, which were scarce at that time, were identified.
In 1956, the observatory was transferred to the Republican Radio Center of the Ministry of Communications of the Former USSR, from 1959 to the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, from 1963 to the Institute of Nuclear Physics, from 1967 to the Institute of Seismology of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. On the other hand, at this interval, the material and technical base of the observatory was strengthened, methodological and technological works were carried out. Nevertheless, the observatory team, staffed by qualified geophysicists, continuously carried out the magnetic-ionosphere service, providing the analytical center with information on the state of the ionosphere and magnetic field on a daily basis. Monthly data exchange was carried out through the International Geophysical Data Centers.

The program of the International Geophysical Year, held under the auspices of the International Commission of the Academies of Sciences on the problem of Planetary Geophysics (KAPG), decided to expand the scope of research into geophysical observatories and create a network of Magnetic Ionospheric Observatories. In 1959, the Keles Magnetic Observatory, which was headed at that time by MG. Ancelevich, renamed the Integrated Magnetic Ionospheric Observatory (KMIO), and here the station of vertical sounding of the ionosphere was installed for the first time. At the same time, the ionospheric observation service began to function. For the organization of ionospheric observations and training of local personnel, the spouses A.N. were sent to Tashkent from Moscow. Sukhodolskaya and M.V. Sukhodolsky, who in a short time organized the work of the ionosonde and prepared a group of qualified specialists.
In 1962-1964. on the basis of the resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers of 04.04.1960 and the Bureau of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR No. 294-08 of 04/20/1962, a typical complex observatory was built on the territory of Parkentsky district of the Tashkent region. The complex has two technical buildings, four magnetic pavilions, two 12 apartment houses, which are located on an area of ​​20 hectares. At the same time, the necessary engineering structures for autonomous life support (a transformer substation, a central heating system, a well with a water tower, a garage, storage rooms, access roads, etc.) were built.
The standard set of equipment consisted of the following stations: vertical and oblique sounding of the ionosphere; four magnetovariational stations of the Bobrov system and six absolute magnetometers; three sectional neutron supermonitor and a cosmic ray cubic telescope; radio wave compression stations; installations for measuring the flow of radio noise and telluric currents. The antenna-feeder system of the observatory consisted of six horizontal dipoles of the High-voltage headset and two vertical rhombic antennas for sounding the ionosphere.
The organization of work, financing of design, construction and equipment supply was carried out through the IZMIRAN head institute. Scientific and organizational management was directly carried out by the deputy director of IZMIRAN, Professor N.P. Benkova. Supervision over construction and installation work was carried out by D.Kh. Kanonidi. Born in Samarkand, daughter of Honored Artist of Uzbekistan Pavel Benkov, N.P. Benkova was especially sensitive to the needs of the observatory, providing constant scientific, personnel and organizational care.
After reunification with the Institute of Seismology, the thematic plan of the observatory was reoriented to research on the problem of earthquake prediction, which was a new direction of geophysics for that period. Until 1972, only observational variations in the components of the geomagnetic field and ionosphere by an ionosonde were conducted at the observatory. In 1972-1973 commissioning works were carried out and cosmic ray stations were launched (A.N. Khojaev), as well as a station for comparing radio waves and atmospheric radio noise (S. S. Khusomiddinov). These works made it possible to supplement the existing complex of geophysical observations with round-the-clock recording of the intensity of the flux of cosmic rays, radio propagation conditions, and natural electromagnetic radiation in various frequency ranges. On the territory of the observatory, the inclinometer station of the Ostrovsky system, as well as a seismic station based on SM-3, are also installed in the pits. At the beginning of the 80s, underground wells with a depth of 2440 meters, 600 meters and two wells of 150 meters were drilled for geochemical studies. A seismic station was installed in one of them. Thus, on the basis of KMIO, a unique completeness toolkit was created for conducting research on the problem of earthquake prediction.
By 1975, the observation service of the KMIO consisted of four groups: Magnetometric (headed by E. Berdaliev); Vertical sounding of the ionosphere and radio wave propagation (SS Khusomiddinov) and cosmic rays (A.N. Khodjaev). The materials of round-the-clock observations of the first three are conducted according to the same international rules The annual values ​​of these data are so far transmitted to the international data center of IDC B2 and are published in annual collections.
In the creative plan, two scientific themes were developed: 1. “Study of the features of the geomagnetic field in seismically active zones” (Scientific adviser Kh.A. Abdullaev and KN Abdullabekov, responsible performers EB Berdaliyev and Yu.P. Tsvetkov); 2. “Investigation of variations in the parameters of the ionosphere and the propagation of electromagnetic waves in order to search for possible precursors of earthquakes” (Scientific adviser V.I. Ulomov, executive executor S.S. Khusomiddinov).

During the implementation of the first theme, the network of autonomous proton magnetometers was created by the performers at a number of locations in the Fergana Valley and around the Charvak reservoir. For the purpose of full-scale modeling of the magnetoelastic effect due to excessive deformation caused by a change in the regime of the Charvak reservoir, a series of discrete interrogation magnetic profiles were laid around the reservoir, on which quarterly repeated measurements were carried out. As a result of long-term observations, unique results were obtained that made it possible to reveal a number of important features of the spatial and temporal changes of the magnetic field in the local zone of the reservoir. Correlation dependences were obtained between changes in the reservoir filling mode and changes in the magnetic field. Based on them, E. B. Berdaliev (1982) defended his thesis. Since the mid-1990s, these research projects have been carried out under the direction of S.Kh. Maksudova and A.I. Tuycheva. The results of these studies are widely recognized among specialists.
In order to implement the second project, a methodology was developed and an installation of automatic round-the-clock registration of natural electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was designed in the VLW, MW and HF frequency ranges. Subsequently, a network of EMI stations located in KMIO (Parkent), Charvak, Andijan and Cimion (Fergana region) adits, a network of stations of the electrotelluric field in points Parkent, Khumsan, Havatag and Cimion was organized. An ionosonde MIS-5 was installed in the village of Sawai (Andijan region). Along with these, electromagnetic and ionospheric observations were carried out in epicentral zones, of almost all earthquakes with a magnitude of five or more in Uzbekistan and in transboundary zones. Based on a multivariate analysis of the accumulated data set, the following important results were obtained.
The morphology of cyclical, seasonal, diurnal periodic, aperiodic variations of the ionosphere of transitional latitudes is studied in detail using the example of Tashkent, as well as electromagnetic radiation in the SDW range of radio wave frequencies. Based on a detailed study of background variations as well as anomalous effects before earthquakes, experimentally proved and theoretically proved for the first time: 1. The presence of precursor anomalous changes in the ionosphere, which manifest as small-scale inhomogeneities, medium-scale quasi-periodic disturbances and changes in the density of the electron density and height of the ionosphere. 2. The increase in the intensity of natural pulsed electromagnetic radiation of a seismogenic nature, which appear three-phase in the weeks, days and hours before the earthquake. 3. The spatial-temporal structure of these phenomena, quantitative relationships with the parameters of the earthquake, the area of ​​manifestation, as well as their characteristics depending on the geological and geophysical conditions of the earthquake focal zone were studied. The results, in fact, became the basis for the development of remote sensing methods for searching for short-term earthquake precursors by radiophysical means. The ideology of the method has found wide application in the CIS, Japan, China and a number of other countries.
In the 1980s, research continued to expand, and geophysical test sites expanded. A series of experiments on the active effects on ionospheric effects has been carried out. The ideology and layout of a multiparameter PC-based installation for automated measurement of electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic parameters of geophysical fields has been created. Created machine-readable data bank KMIO.
During the period of existence of the observatory a huge collection of geophysical data has been collected. The KMIO archive has available 24-hour measurements: variations of the T, H, Z, D, I component of the geomagnetic field and K perturbation indices since 1925, hourly values ​​and daily altitude graphs on 14 parameters of the ionosphere since 1969, EMR intensity from 1973, the intensity of the neutron component of cosmic rays since 1975, the latitudinal-longitudinal components of the ETP since 1981, the slopes of the earth's surface since 1972. Since 2010, measurements have been taken on the global positioning - GPS

The team of the observatory organized special expeditions to the epicentral zones of Alai-1974, Gazli-1976 and 1984, Isfara-Batken-1977, Tavaksai-1977, Nazarbek-1980, Chimon-1982, Papal-1984 , Kairakkum-1985, Spitak-1988 earthquake. The observatory participated in dozens of international and All-Union experiments on the problem of planetary geophysics: the International Geophysical Year since 1957, the Year of Active Sun since 1969, the Year of Calm Sun since 1974, MASSA since 1984, SSMGE since 1989, SANDILE since 1990 and others. According to the materials of the observatory, several hundreds of scientific articles, reports and four monographs were written, nine candidate and three doctoral dissertations were defended. It is difficult to overestimate the contribution of the staff of the MG Observatory. Ancelevich, L.E. Zarochentseva, M.N. Kuznetsova, E.B. Berdalieva, M.I. Kuznetsova, R.A. Zarochentseva, V.L. Saveliev and others in the development of the observatory. With their dedication, hard work and enthusiasm, they advanced the scientific level of geophysical research.
At this stage, the observatory is being upgraded with modern automated digital equipment in all areas of research.
For the near future, a priority area of ​​research is the creation of a methodology and a system for monitoring changes in the stress-strain state of the earth's crust, identifying the most critical areas with predictive estimates of the probability of an earthquake in the medium and short term.
Currently, the observatory operates in the form of a Unique Scientific Object (since 2003) and has a typical production complex (2 technical buildings, 5 magnetic pavilions and auxiliary facilities) with autonomous life support systems. Equipped with vertical sounding installations of the ionosphere of type AIS, 4 component magnetovarization stations with photo oscillographic recording, digital magnetovariational station like Kvarts-Zem, proton - precision magnetometers, station for measuring the intensity of cosmic rays.